head injury

These Are the Signs of Brain Damage

Whether moderate or severe, brain damage can have a lasting effect on a person’s physical, cognitive, behavioral, and perceptual function. Signs and symptoms of brain damage can vary with the type of brain injury, the damaged area, and the extent of the damage.

Persistent Headaches

Headaches are a common sign of brain damage, especially following an incident such as a car accident, fall, or sports injury. They often occur as a result of changes in the brain or small collections of fluid or blood inside the skull. Typical headaches include migraine headaches, tension-type headaches, cervicogenic headaches, and rebound headaches.

Loss of Consciousness

Traumatic brain injury may cause a person to lose consciousness, even for just a few seconds. Severe brain damage can cause unconsciousness for days, weeks, or even longer. This is caused by a shortage of oxygen, internal bleeding, or swelling in the brain. Brain damage can result in permanent changes in a person’s state of awareness, responsiveness, and consciousness. 


A person with brain damage may experience an inability to think clearly. This manifests as difficulty completing thoughts, paying attention, performing everyday tasks, remembering things, or navigating familiar environments.

Memory Loss

Memory loss is more than experiencing forgetfulness. Post-traumatic amnesia makes it difficult to store memories, retain new information, or recall certain people and events. 

Sensory Problems

The brain is the center of all five senses. Common sensory problems associated with brain damage include blurred vision, changes in the ability to smell, strange or lost sensations on the skin, ringing in the ears, poor hand-eye coordination, difficulty eating and swallowing, and sensitivity to light or sound. Changes in speech include slurred or slowed speech, abnormal speech rhythm, and difficulty regulating speech volume.

Behavioral Changes

Brain injury victims often experience changes in behavior. This results from changes in brain chemistry. A person with brain damage might experience irritability and impatience, sluggishness, sudden mood swings, and increased aggressiveness. Individuals might also experience flattened or heightened emotions or reactions, anxiety, reduced tolerance for stress, feelings of depression, or inappropriate behavior.

Brain damage is most often associated with a significant blow to the head, strong rotational injury to the head, or shaking. This may be the result of a fall, sports injury, cycling injury, car accident, or physical assault. With the help of an injury lawyer, a brain damage victim may be entitled to receive compensation for hospitalization, surgery, medical treatment, and rehabilitation therapy.